23.4 The Stomach – Anatomy and Physiology

Second, at the begining of mall intestine are glands (Brunner’s glands) producing alkaline secret to neutralize acid from stomach. The stomach itself doesn’t disallow the acid into the rest of the plumbing; when the pyloric sphincter opens, chyme (the mix of food, ingested fluids, and stomach acid) flows into the duodenum of the small intestine.

The small intestine absorbs most of the nutrients in your food, and your circulatory system passes them on to other parts of your body to store or use. Special cells help absorbed nutrients cross the intestinal lining into your bloodstream.

Components of the digestive system

The intestinal phase controls the rate of gastric emptying and the release of hormones needed to digest chyme in the small intestine. All three phases of digestive responses to food (the cephalic, gastric, and intestinal stages) are managed through enzymatic neural control. Gastrointestinal Tract, The tube that extends from the mouth to the anus in which the movement of muscles and release of hormones and enzymes digest food. The thick semi fluid mass of partly digested food that is passed from the stomach to the duodenum.

This phase controls the rate of gastric emptying. In addition to gastrin emptying, when chyme enters the small intestine, it triggers other hormonal and neural events that coordinate the activities of the intestinal tract, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.

These molecules can attack the nearest stable molecule, leading to a dangerous chain reaction that can result in a disease called cirrhosis of the liver. Cirrhosis occurs when scar tissue replaces normal, healthy tissue and the liver, which needs unrestricted blood flow, doesn’t work as it should.

The duodenum receives pancreatic enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver and gallbladder. These fluids, which enter the duodenum through an opening called the sphincter of Oddi, are important in aiding digestion and absorption.

  • Your stomach protects itself from being digested by its own enzymes, or burnt by the corrosive hydrochloric acid, by secreting sticky, neutralising mucus that clings to the stomach walls.
  • One idea is that people with IBS have a large
  • It can lead to jaundice, and is identified by the presence of elevated bilirubin level that is mainly conjugated.

Stomach Conditions

This is because stomach acid is secreted into the stomach in response to the expansion of the stomach wall. During this time a considerable amount of digestive work can be accomplished if plant enzymes, either indigenous to the raw food ingested or from a supplemental source, are present. Unfortunately, the amount of time necessary to make stomach acid increases with age. Studies have proven that older adults often suffer from inadequate stomach acid levels. This system is where food is broken down, or digested.

About two-thirds of gastric secretion occurs during this phase. The cerebral cortex sends messages to the hypothalamus, the medulla, and the parasympathetic nervous system via the vagus nerve, and to the stomach via the gastric glands in the walls of the fundus and the body of stomach.

Mechanical Digestion

Another level of hormonal control occurs in response to the composition of food. Foods high in lipids (fatty foods) take a long time to digest. A hormone called gastric inhibitory peptide is secreted by the small intestine to slow down the peristaltic movements of the intestine to allow fatty

does stomach acid enters the small intestine

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