is hotter than in Western countries). Epidemiological investigations aimed at comparing the incidence of stomach cancer in hot pepper consumers and non-consumers gave conﬂicting results. Studies carried out in Mexico and India found a correlation between chilli pepper consumption and gastric cancer, while an Italian study reached an opposite conclusion, namely that regular eating of chilli pepper has a protective activity against gastric cancer (Szallasi and Blumberg, 1999). Mutagenesis studies have established that capsaicin is per se not mutagenic, but can produce mutagenic metabolites when activated by the liver and at very high concentrations, unlikely to occur in humans through dietary or medicinal exposure (Szallasi and Blumberg, 1999).
This time things were different, with 4,000 participants from 41 countries. The Minister of Public Health, the Dean of the Colegio Médico, and the Mayor of Lima all participated in the inauguration ceremony, along with a long list of university authorities. Published acts of the congress included important contributions on the medicinal flora of Peru  and for the Southern Andes .
Medical fraternity (UG as well as PG) is no different from the general population when it comes to substance use; however, they may be at a higher risk of substance use problems due to higher stress levels. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use, to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards this issue, and to explore possible risk factors associated with substance use among UG and PG medical students in India. An effort was also made to gather suggestions from the fraternity for tackling this problem. Use of illegal drugs and psychoactive substances were not studied due to ethical concerns as well as the potential lack of willingness to participate in the study. food to medicine, an integral part of Chinese and Indian medicine, was well recognized in the Greco-Roman tradition, and certain food plants (garlic, onion, parsley, pepper) have always enjoyed a ‘more than a food, less than a drug’ status.
OGTT is supposed to be performed under clinical observation with laboratory set up. It also requires multiple blood draws for which the subject needs to be contacted more than 2 times and requires longer time duration (3-4 hours). As the current study is a cross sectional study with limited resources at remote rural area, the necessary time, human resource and financial resources were limiting factors for conducting GTT.
Decision support systems, including computer programs designed to assist in the visualization of tradeoffs inherent in the decision-making process, are needed to educate patients more effectively and help them make a fully informed decision based on evidencebased approaches. Decision support tools have been shown to help healthcare providers and patients make more informed decisions, especially when multiple treatment options are available with various degrees of risks and benefits.15,16 However, they have rarely been used for hysterectomy decision making.
Its glycosidated forms were long assumed not to be absorbed after oral ingestion, but in 1995 a high intestinal absorption of onion quercetin rutinoside (17 per cent) as well as of quercetin itself (24 per cent) in ileostomized humans was demonstrated (Hollman et al., 1995), showing that absorption in the small intestine is possible. Quercetin 3rutinoside was also shown to be absorbed after eating tomato purée, and the sugar moiety was found to have an important role for the absorption, which was highest when the sugar residue was glucose (Hollman et al., 1997). Flavonoids generally occur in food plants as ␤-glycosides. No general digestive enzyme capable of splitting the ␤glycosidic bond is excreted into the gut or is present in the intestinal wall (Kühnau, 1976), but hydrolysis can only take place in the colon, where ␤-glycosidases of broad speciﬁcity are present in the bacterial ﬂora.
Barley and oats have greater contents of soluble ﬁbre than do wheat and maize. The use of dietary ﬁbre in human diet has been shown to have association with heart disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity.
The study was conducted between March 2013 and June 2013 and utilized cross-sectional assessments. A multistage random cluster sampling method was utilized to obtain a sample of 346 antenatal women. After preparing a list of districts of Gujarat state in their ascending order as per their population, the Banaskantha district was randomly selected.
Similar encouraging results were also observed in patients with recurrent adult malignant gliomas and with metastatic adrenal tumours refractory to conventional chemotherapy. The mechanism of the anticancer activity has not yet been elucidated. In cultures of normal breast epithelial cells, gossypol does not cause cell death, though incorporation of 3H-tymidine is inhibited in a dose-dependent way (Gilbert et al., 1995). Biopsies from patients evidenced a reduction in cyclin D1 expression and an increase of the nuclear pRb expression.
Participants were able to review materials at their own pace and fill out the survey if/when they felt ready to fill it out. The participants were given the option of filling out the survey on an iPad or using a paper version. The survey answers were stored in a password protected electronic format on a secure University of Pittsburgh server and all responses remained anonymous. Data analysis This was a mixed methods study consisting of quantitative and qualitative analyses.
Baseline demographic characteristics were collected via a self-administered, standardized questionnaire. All anthropometric, biochemical, and adiponectin measurements were obtained at baseline and 6 months. Weight was measured on a digital scale (Tanita Corporation of America, Inc., IL) in light clothing and without shoes. Height was measured with a wall-mounted stadiometer.
It is very important to continue research in this area, as more data are needed on 5382insC mutation in women with breast cancer in Uzbekistan. CENTRAL ASIAN JOURNAL OF GLOBAL HEALTH BRCA1 gene, and 6174delT in the BRCA2 gene) in women with breast cancer in Uzbekistan.
This was conducted during face-to-face interviews with 1,408 young people aged 10-19 years. Respondents were recruited randomly through the lists of the households from 12 selected communes in three areas in Northern Vietnam.
Dietary Components and Immune Function (Nutrition and Health)
Information was also obtained concerning leisure activities and use of health care. The paper also sets out to examine possible gender differences in relation to alcohol consumption and risk behaviour and to propose the development and implementation of alcohol monitoring and prevention programs in Vietnam. Alcohol consumption is associated with a wide range of health and social consequences.
In glycosidic form it is almost ubiquitous in fruits and vegetables, with signiﬁcant amounts occurring in onions, tomatoes and apples as well as in wine (Hertog et al., 1992). With the exception of onions, quercetin generally occur in skin tissues. On average, the human diet contains almost 1 g ﬂavonoid per day, and ﬂavonoids have been implicated in the protective effect of the consumption of large amounts of fruits and vegetables against cancer and heart diseases. Evidence for this correlation is, at present, weak, especially as regards the chemopreventive activity (Hollman and Katan, 1999).