Research and development in Italy

Derived indicator ‘Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP’ is one of the eight headline indicators of Europe 2020 strategy. R&D expenditure or in other words Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is total intramural expenditure on R&D performed in the national territory during a specific reference period.

Other European Countries

Total intramural R&D expenditure (GERD) comprises current costs and capital expenditure on R&D. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is total intramural expenditure on R&D performed in the national territory during a specific reference period.

“Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge “(Frascati Manual, 2015 edition, par 44). Domain comprises national statistics on R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D (GBAORD). Data are collected in several occasions in a year and they consist of several breakdowns such as institutional R&D performing and funding sectors, types of costs and types of R&D, fields of science and economic activities.

R&D expenditure can be disaggregated by sector of performance, source of funds, field of R&D, type of research and type of cost. The Frascati Manual provides more details related to these breakdowns (what these breakdowns/classifications are, the purposes, including user needs, the main criteria that are applied, etc). This indicator is defined as the total intramural expenditure on research and experimental development (R&D) performed in the national territory during a specific reference period expressed as a percentage of national gross domestic product (GDP). The gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) indicator is used for international comparisons.

They also provide the accounting system within which the institutional classifications and functional distributions might be applied. The website www.innovationdata.be provides a set of indicators describing the progress made by Belgium and its Regions in the field of innovation. The website has been developed by the Federal Planning Bureau at the request of the Belgian Science Policy Office, following the Federal Government’s decision to create a transversal technology platform. The percent of GDP dedicated to R&D is the most significant indicator which notifies about the level of economic innovation in a particular country. The table below published by Eurostat depicts the data concerning Venture Capital Investment (code VENTURE) which is expressed as GDP (Gross Domestic Product at market prices).

The data is broken down by occupation further, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2) and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Science, engineering and technology (SET) annual expenditure by UK government departments, research councils and higher education funding councils; by current and constant prices. Research and experimental development (R) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications (Frascati Manual, 2002 edition, § 63 ). R intensity (R expenditures as a percentage of GDP) is an indicator of high political importance at the EU, national and regional levels..

Data in these fields collected by Eurostat serves both policymakers and scientists. In 2009 the total amount of the expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) is 361.1 million BGN which increases by 10.8% in comparison with the previous year and the annual growth tendency retains for the period of 2005 – 2009. In 2010 the total amount of the expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) is 420.1 million BGN which increases by 16.4% in comparison with the previous year and the annual growth tendency retains for the period of 2006 – 2010. In 2013, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 521.2 million BGN which was 5.0% more than the previous year.

UTRGV and the National Center for Women in Information Technology (NCWIT) are collaborating to create a two-year plan to improve gender equality in computer science at the university. It is often displayed as a matrix of performing and funding sectors. GERD and the basis be formed by the GERD matrix of international comparisons of R&D expenditures.

In constant price terms, it increased by 5.3%. R&D intensity (R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP) is an indicator of high political importance at the EU, national and regional levels because this indicator measures the Europe 2020 strategy’s headline target to invest 3% of EU’s GDP in R&D. The growth of the indicator seems to be promising. Over the last decade, the total intramural R&D expenditure in Poland increased four times while the UE average grew just by one-third nearly.

R&D BUS: Intramural R&D – Eastern

2002. This domain features statistics derived from the European Patent Office (EPO) raw database PATSTAT, on patents from EPO, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), triadic patent Patent and families Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications. Patent statistics breakdowns include the fields of the International Patent Classification (IPC); institutional sector, economic activities, foreign ownership and also High Tech patents and aggregations by several technology areas (i.e. ICT, biotechnology, nanotechnology, “green” energy technologies). Science, technology and innovation statistics have been acknowledged in 2010 by the Commission as to be closely linked to the policy activities carried out by the European Union. This places Innovation indicators as a key element in monitoring the objectives of the Innovation Union initiative and European Research Area (ERA) under the different priorities of the Europe 2020 Strategy.

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